Unit 4 Discover useful structures 教案
Teaching targets :
To learn the present perfect continuous tense
To practice the present perfect continuous tense by completing some exercises
Exploring the rules
Look at the sentence in the present perfect continuous tense. Find more examples from the previous text and discuss the function of the tense.
EXAMPLE This is the adventure that I have been dreaming of.
Page 38 The last line: “… we have been managing to survive…”
Page 39 Line 2: “We have been struggling for days …”
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
have / has + been + doing
We use present perfect continuous tense for actions that started in the past and continue in the present.
We use present perfect continuous tense for actions that started in the past and have just finished but have consequences in the present.
Compare the sentences below.
Question 1: Which tense is used to emphasise the
continuation of the action?
This is the adventure that I have been dreaming of.
This is the adventure that I have dreamt of.
Question 2: Which tense is used to talk about a finished action, and which is about an unfinished action?
We have been managing to survive.
We have managed to survive.
Question 3: Which tense is used to emphasise the length of time?
We have been struggling for days.
We have struggled for days.
|肯定句：主语 + have / has + been + 动词-ing形式 …否定句：主语 + have / has + not + been + 动词-ing形式 …疑问句：Have/Has + 主语 + been + 动词-ing形式 …?疑问词 + have / has + (主语 + ) been + 动词-ing形式 …?||I have been working here for 5 years.I haven’t been seeing a film for a long time.Have you been meeting her lately?What have you been doing these days?|
|表示动作从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在，并且还将持续下去。||Tom is ill. He’s been lying in bed for three weeks.|
|表示在说话时刻之前刚刚结束的动作。||We have been waiting for you for half an hour.|
|表示到说话时为止的一段时间内一再重复的动作，通常带有感情色彩。||Too much has been happening today.|
|某些不具延续性含义的动词，如come, go, marry, die, finish等，不适用于现在完成进行时。|
|all this time, this year / season / month / week, all the morning, all night, “for +一段时间”, “since +时间点”, these few days等。||What have you been doing all this time?Jack has been scoring plenty of goals this season.I have been learning English for three years.|
|现在完成进行时强调在一段时间内某项活动的持续性，强调动作本身；而现在完成时强调动作产生的结果或影响。||I’ve been painting the door this morning.I have painted the door and it looks like a new one.|
|现在完成进行时有时含有明显的感情色彩，而现在完成时往往只说明一个事实，一种影响或结果，没有感情色彩。||Who has been eating my apples?Who has eaten my apples?|
|许多静态动词（know, be, have, find, understand等）通常用于现在完成时而不用于现在完成进行时。||We’ve known each other since childhood.|
1. —You are a great swimmer.
—Thanks. It’s because I _______ a lot these days. A. have been practising
B. was practising
C. would practise
D. had practiced
2. It doesn’t impress like George Washington’s plantation on the Potomac, but Lincoln’s home in downtown Springfield, Illinois, ______________________(prove) irresistible to visitors since it opened to the public.
3. The number of medical schools reached 18 in the early 1990s and ______ around that level ever since. A. are remaining B. have remained
C. is remaining D. has remained
Read each situation and rewrite each a sentence using the present perfect continuous tense.
1. The dog started to bark about two hours ago. I really hope it will stop soon.
The dog has been barking for about two hours. I really hope it will stop soon.
2. Steve started to play rugby at the age of eight. Now he has become a professional player.
3. Timmy is holding a table tennis bat and his short hair is damp with sweat. He looks a little tired after playing table tennis for two hours.
4. Diane hasn’t got much sleep this week. She looks terrible today.
- I tried to phone you this morning. I must have tried a dozen times before I caught you here. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Complete the sentences below using the correct tenses of the verbs in brackets. Then explain your reasons to your partner.
1. For the whole morning, the board of directors __________________ (discuss) the resolution to increase wages in the coming year.
2. Jason’s only recreation is painting. He _________________ (learn) how to paint for over five years.
3. Even though we lost the game, we should be proud of ourselves because we _________ (try) our best and ________ (work) as a team.
He finally __________ (finish) the research paper under his tutor’s guidance.
4.My nephew Sam _________________ (collect) comic books since he was five. Now he has more than two hundred of them.
5.The company ___________________________________
(launch) an advertising campaign to promote its corporate image.
Interview your partner about the things that he / she has been doing. The following questions might help you.
Do you have any hobbies or interests?
How long have you been learning/playing …?
What have you been doing recently?
A: Do you have any hobbies?
B: Sure. I have several hobbies such as table tennis, photography, and kite flying. But my favourite hobby is playing the guitar.
A: How long have you been learning the guitar?
B: I have been learning the guitar since I was eight years old. I saw a video of someone playing and I fell in love with it.
A: That’s great.
Write a short report about the things that your partner has been doing recently according to your interview. Remember to use the present perfect continuous tense.